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What is the memory?

Ailin Yang

“Memory is defined as the ability to retain knowledge.”

(Cacioppo & Freberg, 2012, p.320)


It acts like an information processor in the brain and is implemented through three main steps: encoding, storing, and retrieving. These steps make up the normal functioning of the memory, theycooperate and are indispensable.

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Encoding is the beginning of the memory process. This step is to take the information that thebrain receives from the outside world, and then process it, and convert it into a code that can bestored. It further enhances the details of a particular memory, depending on each person’sexperiences or thoughts.


Encoding is the beginning of the memory process. This step is to take the information that thebrain receives from the outside world, and then process it, and convert it into a code that can bestored. It further enhances the details of a particular memory, depending on each person’sexperiences or thoughts.


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The storage phase is a process to retain memory. It preservesthe code in memory through consolidation. This is becausesome information fades away in the early stages of memory, so memory consolidation is important. It “refers to theneurobiological process of long-term memory formation.”

(How Memory Works | Psychology Today, n.d.)


Retrieval is the third phase of memory. It will retrieve the previously encoded and stored codes or details from the brain. Sometimes, the process of its recall is unconscious, but it is usually retrieved when needed.

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In reality, “memory is a multicomponent (rather than a monolithic) entity.” (Foster, 2009), according to a century of research. There are many different types of memory. Most of them appearin daily life. The three main forms of memory presented include sensory memory, short-termmemory, and long-term memory.

Sensory memory gathers data from various senses, such as taste and hearing. The retention periodusually is brief, but it can store a large amount of information for a short period of time and thebrain will only select a portion for processing. Of course, sensory memories can also be preservedfor a long time.

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Short-term memory refers to the retention of information for a short time. It commonly storesmemories that are less important or time-sensitive. You will probably forget quickly after youexperience them.


Long-term memory is the sum of experiences, events, information, emotions, skills, etc., acquiredfrom sensory memory and short-term memory. Short-term memory will be converted to long-termmemory when you keep remembering it for a long time and thinking about it repeatedly in yourmind. Its capacity is almost unlimited.


In conclusion, memory is like a way of processing information. By understanding theprocess of memory and the types of memory, it seems to enhance the knowledge and understandingof the brain, which is useful for learning.

References:


Cherry, K. (2020, May 15). What Is Memory and How Does It Work? Verywell Mind;Verywellmind. https://www.verywellmind.com/what-is-memory-2795006

Foster, J. K. (2009). Memory : a very short introduction. Oxford University Press, Cop.How Memory Works | Psychology Today. (n.d.). Www.psychologytoday.com. https://

www.psychologytoday.com/us/basics/memory/how-memory-works

Psychology Today. (2019). Memory | Psychology Today. Psychology Today. https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/basics/memory

Types of Memory | Psychology Today. (n.d.). Www.psychologytoday.com.



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