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Congenital heart disease

Congenital Psychology refers to abnormalities in the structure of the heart at birth or during the period of existence. These abnormalities may include faulty connections in the heart's blood vessels, abnormal size of the heart chambers, missing or incomplete heart membranes, or defects in the heart walls. Symptoms of these abnormalities include abnormal heart flow, which may increase the heart's workload and violate the heart's supply to various parts of the body.


Congenital Psychology varies in type and severity. Some patients may have no obvious symptoms, while others may experience symptoms such as difficulty breathing, hair tangle, difficulty feeding, or slow growth and development. Some patients require surgery or other treatments to correct the heart structure or improve heart function. For severe congenital psychology, long-term monitoring and treatment are required, and even a heart transplant may be required.

History and incidence

The incidence of congenital heart disease is approximately 8 to 10 per 1,000 newborns worldwide, making it one of the most common congenital defects in infants. However, this rate may vary in different regions and populations. In some developing countries, the incidence of congenital heart disease may be higher due to limited medical conditions and insufficient access to medical services. In some developed countries, this rate may be relatively low due to improved medical technology, the popularity of prenatal screening, and a better healthcare system. Although the incidence of congenital heart disease varies, it is a serious challenge for patients and families, requiring long-term treatment and management.

Symptoms and treatment

Congenital heart disease may be present at birth or during infancy, usually manifesting as an underdeveloped heart or abnormal heart structure. Patients may show a variety of symptoms, including but not limited to difficulty breathing, cyanosis, difficulty feeding, and growth retardation. The severity of these symptoms depends on the type and extent of the heart problem.


The treatment of congenital heart disease varies depending on the specific situation of the patient. In general, treatment includes medication and surgical intervention. Medication is often used to control symptoms and reduce the burden on the heart, such as diuretics and vasodilators. For some patients who need to repair heart defects or improve blood vessel structure, surgery is necessary. In addition, there are interventional surgery options that can be repaired through catheters into the heart without open surgery. In extreme cases, a heart transplant may be required to save lives.


In addition to treatment, regular medical monitoring and rehabilitation therapy are also important components of managing congenital heart disease. This helps to ensure that the patient's heart health status is assessed in a timely manner, and psychological support and rehabilitation measures are provided to promote the patient's full recovery and improve the quality of life.

Prognosis and complications

The prognosis and complications of congenital heart disease depend largely on the type and severity of the disease, as well as the timeliness and effectiveness of treatment. For mild cases, such as small heart defects that do not require surgical intervention, patients may be able to control symptoms with regular medical monitoring and medication and have a good prognosis. However, for severe heart malformations or dysfunction, surgery or interventional procedures may be required to repair the heart structure or improve blood flow to prevent complications. Common complications include heart failure, arrhythmias, cerebrovascular events, and pulmonary hypertension, which can have a serious impact on the patient's health.


Regular medical monitoring, medication, and rehabilitation measures are essential to manage complications and improve quality of life. Therefore, early diagnosis, timely treatment, and comprehensive medical management are essential to prevent complications and improve patient outcomes.

Prevention measures

Key measures to prevent congenital heart disease include prenatal screening and counseling, which enable pregnant women to detect possible heart problems at an early stage and take appropriate measures. In addition, it is also important to prevent pregnant women from being exposed to risk factors such as smoking, drinking, and using drugs, as well as to avoid exposure to environmental factors such as toxic substances and radiation.


Maintaining a healthy lifestyle, including a healthy diet, adequate exercise, and taking necessary nutritional supplements, can help reduce the risk of disease. If the family has a family history of heart disease or has given birth to a child with congenital heart disease, you can seek genetic counseling to understand the possibility of the disease and take appropriate measures. These comprehensive measures will help reduce the risk of disease and improve the health of the baby.



Reference

[1] Steinhausen, H., and W. Bruhn. “Klinisch-Psychologische Untersuchungen Bei Kindern Mit Kongenitalen Herzvitien.” Klinische Pädiatrie, vol. 192, no. 06, Nov. 1980, pp. 533–538, Retrieved April 30, 2024 https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2008-1035639. Accessed 22 Mar. 2022.

[2] Didierjean-Pillet, A. “[Psychological Approach to Congenital Hand Deformities. Congenital Deformities, the Desire to Know].” Annales de Chirurgie Plastique et Esthetique, vol. 47, no. 1, 1 Feb. 2002, pp. 2–8, pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11980349/, Retrieved April 30, 2024 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0294-1260(01)00079-6..

[3]  Kovacs, Adrienne H., et al. “Psychological Outcomes and Interventions for Individuals with Congenital Heart Disease: A Scientific Statement from the American Heart Association.” Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes, vol. 15, no. 8, 14 July 2022, Retrieved April 300, 2024 thttps://doi.org/10.1161/hcq.0000000000000110.

[4] Moons, Philip, et al. “Mental Health in Adult Congenital Heart Disease.” International Journal of Cardiology Congenital Heart Disease, Apr. 2023, p. 100455, Retrieved April 30, 2024 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcchd.2023.100455.

[5] Callus, Edward, and Emilia Quadri. Clinical Psychology and Congenital Retrieved April 30, 2024 Heart Disease. Springer EBooks, Springer Nature, 1 Jan. 2015.

[6]Kovacs, Adrienne, et al. Psychological Aspects of Living with Congenital Heart Disease: Information for Patients and Families Prepared By. retrieved April 30, 2024 https://professional.heart.org/-/media/PHD-Files-2/Science-News/p/Psychological-Aspects-of-Congenital-Heart-Disease-Information-for-Patients-and-Families.pdf

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