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The truth that the World Cup has far fewer dopers than any other sport is...?

Zixuan Huang

Doping is a general term for drugs that can stimulate the potential of athletes in a short period of time. It is resisted because all of these drugs have serious side effects that can harm the body. It can not only stimulate the potential by stimulating organs, but according to the difference between main chemical components, it actually also has several different means, therefore, the side effects are also different.

1

Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agents



The drug strengthens the athlete's oxygen supply system by stimulating stem cells to make red blood cells by promoting a hormone called erythropoietin (EOP), which is secreted by the kidneys under hypoxic conditions. This type of stimulant has long appeared in endurance athletes, such as marathon, cycling and cross-country skiing. EOP can usually increase their oxygen supply by seven to ten percent. However, its side effect is to increase the density of red blood cells, which also means that the blood will become thick like honey instead of the liquid like normal people should have, and then the heart will be overloaded to maintain the blood supply needs of the whole body. Athletes who take this type of doping face a high risk of heart disease and stroke.

2

Anabolic Steroids




Steroids are chemical substances derived from cholesterol, and anabolic steroids can enhance the strength of the body. It increases muscle mass primarily by stimulating muscle cells and bone cells to make new proteins. Its molecular structure is similar to that of hormones, so the steroid affects the sex organs. In short, males become females, and females become males. Side effects in men are hair loss, breast development, and infertility. Side effects for women are thicker voice and menopause.

3

Adrenaline





This class of stimulants is mainly composed of caffeine, cocaine and amphetamines. It mainly stimulates the pituitary gland (ACTH) to secrete adrenocorticotropic hormone to help athletes improve heart blood supply and lung breathing. But the side effects are nervousness, tremor, high blood pressure, cramps, sudden death and so on.

No matter what kind of dopes have irreversible damage to the human body, their main function is to strengthen the body's functions by oppressing the workload of the body's local organs, and this change will inevitably lead to the destruction of the body's balance. In fact, it is equivalent to overdrawing the body to achieve a temporary improvement, but this is very easy to trigger the body's long-term dependence on drugs, because the body's original functions have been destroyed and cannot operate independently.

For a competitive game like soccer, plus the break of at least 105 minutes, this does not include the time for dealing with accidents in the middle. And there are 45 minutes per round, which is longer than most other events. According to the dopes introduced earlier, the mainstream body-stimulating doping can only stimulate the potential in a short period of time, and are not suitable for soccer. Muscle enhancement can be distinguished by changes in appearance, and already has been eliminated by the mainstream.

For long-term games, it sounds like the one with increased oxygen supply sounds the most suitable for soccer, but long-term game means that it needs to take a high amount of doping to ensure a high mobility state throughout the whole process, which can be used for high hematocrit Danger ensues. EOP will cause blood viscosity to increase the resistance of blood vessels and increase the load on the heart (28,60). When the blood volume ratio is greater than 30%, the blood viscosity will increase exponentially (35). When it is greater than 55%, it will affect sports performance and health. Excessive blood volume ratio can easily cause thrombosis, such as stroke or myocardial infarction, and it can also cause blood flow stagnation and thrombus in small veins, leading to deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism.

Therefore, among a series of Olympic events, the cost-effectiveness of doping in soccer is the lowest. Taking doping means that they have to bear side effects that are far more sinister than other sports, and because a large amount of stimulants are extremely difficult to metabolize, they are also facing the high risk of being discovered.

Doping can be traced back to the 1900s, when some athletes used alcoholic mixed drinks to stimulate the central nervous system in order to achieve good results. In the 20th century, athletes took an ever-increasing variety of performance-enhancing drugs.

With the strong crackdown on doping by international sports organizations, our detection technology is constantly updated and improved. Our detection experts are now equipped with very advanced and sophisticated instruments, and even drug metabolism residues containing two nanograms per millimeter of urine cannot escape the detection of the instruments.

Therefore, in the sport of football competition, the more popular players are, the harder it is to have the news of doping.


Works Cited

Mayo Clinic Staff. “Learn about the Risks of Performance-Enhancing Drugs.” Mayo Clinic, Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, 10 Dec. 2022,

https://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/fitness/in-depth/performance-enhancing-drugs/art-20046134.


Wilens, Timothy E. “Stimulants and Sudden Death: What Is a Physician to Do? .” Publications.aap.org, 1 Sept. 2006,

https://publications.aap.org/pediatrics/article-abstract/118/3/1215/69310/Stimulants-and-Sudden-Death-What-Is-a-Physician-to.


Maier, Larissa J., et al. “To Dope or Not to Dope: Neuroenhancement with Prescription Drugs and Drugs of Abuse among Swiss University Students.” PLOS ONE, Public Library of Science, 13 Nov. 2013,

https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0077967.


Reardon, Claudia L, and Shane Creado. “Drug Abuse in Athletes.” Substance Abuse and Rehabilitation, U.S. National Library of Medicine, 14 Aug. 2014,

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4140700/.


Perishable. “Blood Doping and EPO: An Anti-Doping FAQ: USADA.” U.S. Anti-Doping Agency (USADA), USADA, 3 Jan. 2020,

https://www.usada.org/spirit-of-sport/education/blood-doping-epo-faq/.


Hsieh, A. C. L., et al. “Role of Adrenaline and Noradrenaline in Chemical Regulation of Heat Production.” American Journal of Physiology-Legacy Content, 1 Aug. 1957,

https://journals.physiology.org/doi/abs/10.1152/ajplegacy.1957.190.2.243.


KUHN, CYNTHIA M. “Anabolic Steroids - Endocrine Society.” Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Duke University Medical Center, CYNTHIA M. KUHN,

https://www.endocrine.org/~/media/endosociety/files/ep/rphr/57/rphr_vol_57_ch_19_anabolic_steroids.pdf.


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