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The Skeletal System


The Skeletal System of the human body is composed of bones as well as connective tissue such as cartilage, tendons, and ligaments. Our body's framework provides support and facilitates movement. Bones, in particular, have the ability to manufacture red blood cells, protect sensitive body components, and aid in mineral storage.

The main component of the skeletal system is composed of bones. There are a total of 206 bonesin the human body. Bones are very much alive, continuously constructing and repairing themselves despite being made of non living minerals like calcium and phosphorus. The two forms of bone tissue—compact and spongy—are the result of the distinct ways that bone cells are arranged. 2、Spongy bone - porous, light tissue that fills the inside of bones; its spongy appearance was designed to resist compressive forces.

Thanks to their specific cells, bones can continuously repair and regenerate themselves. The adult bone cell, or osteocyte, can be reformed by bone remodeling, which is the on-going replacement of the bone by osteoclasts and osteoblasts. The removal procedure is carried out by osteoclasts, which release enzymes that "digest" the bone substance. Asosteoblasts are in charge of construction by generating osseous tissue, a deposit of bone will eventually mature into an osteocyte. There are also osteoprogenitor cells, which are unspecialized cells that can differentiate into various bone cell types when required.

Based on how they are shaped, bones can be divided into 4 categories:

Long bone - its length is longer than its width, having enlarged ends.

(e.g. tibia, fibula, femur, humerus, and phalanges)

Short bone - fairly equal in width and length; has a shell of compact bone with a spongy bone filling. (e.g. carpals and tarsals)

Flat bone - platelike bones that could be flat or curved. (e.g. skull, ribs, and scapula)

Irregular bone - as its name suggests, odd in shape and sometimes resembling a jigsaw puzzle.(e.g. hip bones and vertebrae)

The classification of the bones affects their anatomy, while long bones are typically the best illustration for medical students to study. Starting with the epiphysis, enlarged endsare found on the top and bottom of a long bone. It contains thered bone marrow necessary for the production of red bloodcells. The diaphysis, commonly known as the long bone's shaft, sits in between the epiphysis. Storage for the yellow bonemarrow is provided by the medullary cavity, which extends down the diaphysis. This marrow serves as a fat reserve but can change into red marrow when necessary. The epiphyseal plateor growth plate, which is the cartilage between the epiphysisand diaphysis, is where longitudinal bone growth occurs. Whenthe plate "closes," growth is finished. The membranes that cover the bones are our last stop. The inner lining that divides the medullary canal from the interior of the marrow cavity iscalled the endosteum.

On the other hand, the periosteumcovers the outside of the bone and serves as an anchor for tendons and ligaments. Additionally, it has blood arteries, lymphatic vessels, and nerves, all of which carry blood and nutrients to support bone cells.

Throughout the body, cartilage is related to muscles, tendons, and ligaments. These three concepts, though, can be difficult to understand because of how similar their definitions are.To be more precise, cartilage is a rubbery, gel-like coating on the ends of bones that protects joints and makes movement easier. A ligament is a flexible strip of tissue that joins two bones and gives joint support. A tendon is a band of tenacious, elastic tissue that joins bones to muscles.

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