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Sickle Cell Anemia

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Sickle Cell Disease, an inherited blood condition, manifests itself as sickle cell anemia.Red blood cells typically have a rounded shape and are flexible, allowing them to pass throughblood vessels easily. Red blood cells in sickle cell anemia are shaped like sickles or crescent moons.These cells can obstruct blood flow because they are stiff and difficult to move. The lifespan oftypical red blood cells is 120 days. Yet, sickle cells only have 10 to 20 days. Without sufficientnumbers of healthy red blood cells, anemia will develop.


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Sickle cell anemia in newborns can last months without showing any signs. When thesymptoms do emerge, they include excessive weariness or fussiness caused by anemia,excruciatingly swollen hands and feet, and jaundice - yellow discoloration of a newborn. Additionally,infants may experience spleen damage that compromises their immune systems and raises their vulnerability to bacterial infections. People with sickle cell anemia may have

various and increasingly significant medical problems as they age, which occur when organ tissues do not receive enough oxygen. Stroke, lung, kidney, spleen, and liver damage are all more likely in those with sickle cell anemia.

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Sickle cell anemia is caused by a mutation in the gene that instructs the body to produce hemoglobin, an important component in red blood cells. Hemoglobin allows blood cells to transport oxygen from the lungs throughout the body. The hemoglobin linked withsickle cell anemia causes red blood cells to become rigid, sticky, and wrinkled. Individuals who havesickle cell anemia must inherit the condition from both parents. The sickle cell trait is present inindividuals who receive the mutant gene from one biological parent.Despite the possibility of somesickle cells in their blood, individuals usually don't exhibit any symptoms. They are, however, carriersof the condition, which means they can pass the gene on to their children.


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A blood test can detect the kind of hemoglobin responsible for sickle cell anemia.Specifically known as hemoglobin electrophoresis or high-performance liquid chromatography.This blood test is a standard component of newborn screening in the United States. Adults andolder children can also be tested. Adults have their blood obtained from an arm vein. While thesample in newborns is often taken from the heel or tip of the finger.

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Sickle cell disease is a chronic condition. Currently, the only cure for sickle cell disease isa bone marrow and blood transplant, but there are efficient therapies that can lessen symptomsand increase lifespan. The main goals of the treatment are to reduce discomfort, treat symptoms,and prevent exacerbation. Medication and blood transfusions are examples of possible treatments.These medicines may include hydroxyurea,voxelator,L-glutamine,and crizanlizumab.A stem celltransplant could potentially cure the illness in certain kids and teenagers.


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