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Norovirus

Updated: Jul 9

Claire

Entering the autumn and winter peak season of high incidence of viral gastroenteritis, more than 30 outbreaks of norovirus disease have been reported nationwide since September this year, involving about 1500 cases, mainly occurring in schools. Remind everyone to pay attention to daily health care and guard against norovirus.

Overview

Norovirus belongs to the genus of cowardly virus in the family Caliciviridae, which is a single femoral positive-stranded RNA virus without an envelope on the surface. Norovirus mutation is fast, short immune protection time. The same individual can be reinfected with the same strain or different types of norovirus, with no cross-immunity between different genotypes.

Clinical Manifestations

The incubation period of norovirus infection is short, usually from 24-48 hours, with a minimum of 12 hours and a maximum of 72 hours. The disease is mainly mild, the most common symptoms are diarrhea and vomiting, followed by nausea, abdominal pain, headache, fever, chills and muscle soreness. Children mainly vomit, while adults mostly have diarrhea. Norovirus infection is a self-limited disease. Most patients do not need treatment after the onset, and can rest for 1-3 days, while a few patients need timely treatment due to serious complications there are currently no vaccines or specific drugs.

Transmission Routes


Norovirus-infected patients and asymptomatic patients are the source of norovirus infection. Norovirus spreads in a variety of ways. Contact with a patient infected with norovirus, such as handling the patient's vomit or excreta, through ingestion of aerosols from feces or vomitus or indirect contact with an environment contaminated by excreta; also through eating and drinking virus-contaminated Food and water spread.



Precautions of Home Quarantine

1


Keep patients from contacting with others.


Patients need to be quarantined at home or hospitalized according to their condition until 3 days after the symptoms disappear completely. Those who are latently infected who test positive for norovirus but have no symptoms of infectious diarrhea also need to be quarantined at home for 3 days. Patients should wash their hands frequently, keep their hands hygienic, and try not to have close contact with other healthy family members, especially not to cook or take care of the elderly and young children.

2


Things should be cooked,


especially shellfish and other seafood food should be cooked thoroughly .

3

Pay attention to personal hygiene.

Disinfectant wipes and hand sanitizer are not effective against norovirus and cannot replace hand washing.

Tips on Norovirus Prevention

1


Patient vomit/feces were in a fixed container

①The prepared content is 5000mg/L~10000mg/L chlorine-containing disinfectant, take the effective chlorine is 5%~6% disinfectant as an example, the ratio of disinfectant to water is 1:5;

②Carefully pour in the configured chlorine-containing disinfectant until the vomit/feces is completely covered;

③Disinfection for more than 30 minutes;

④Flushed away by the toilet.

2


Vitus/feces on the ground

①The prepared content is 5000mg/L~10000mg/L chlorine-containing disinfectant, and the ratio of disinfectant and water is 1:5;

②Use the chlorine-containing disinfectant equipped with a disposable water-absorbing material exhibition area to completely cover the pollutants and carefully. At the same time, in the case of no contact with pollutants, the ground is thoroughly disinfected;

③Put the cleaned pollutants into yellow garbage bags and dispose them centrally according to medical waste;

④The rag and other tools used in the disinfection must be used with a 5,000mg/L disinfectant solution containing effective chlorine, soaked and disinfected for 30 minutes, and then thoroughly washed before they can be used again.

3

Vitus/feces on the grounds and walls

①Disinfection by spraying or wiping, using an effective chlorine concentration of 1000mg/L, and preparing a chlorine-containing disinfectant with a concentration of 1000mg/L;

②The disinfection time should not be less than 30 minutes;

③When there are visible pollutants, the pollutants should be removed before the disinfection.

4


Vitus/feces on desks, chairs, toys and other objects

①High frequency of contact surface is the key area of disinfection, a concentration of 1000mg/L. chlorine-containing disinfectant can be used regularly poison;

②Soak, spray, or wipe and disinfect;


③Action for 30 minutes, and then wipe it clean with water.

5



Vitus/feces on skin and mucous membranes

①When the skin becomes contaminated with pollutants, the pollutants should be removed immediately. Then use a disposable water-absorbing material to dip in 0.5% iodophor disinfectant, wipe and disinfect for more than 3 minutes, and then wash it with water;

②The mucosa should be washed with large amounts of normal saline.

In addition, the domestic waste generated by Noro patients should be collected and disposed of in a double-layer medical waste bag as medical waste. At the same time, indoor air circulation should be maintained at home, and ultraviolet rays can also be used to disinfect the air in unoccupied spaces.

Note: Due to the strong resistance of norovirus, it is recommended to use chlorine-containing disinfectants for disinfection, such as 84 disinfectant, chlorine-containing disinfection tablets, etc., pay attention to the content of disinfectants when preparing, and take personal protection when preparing, such as wearing Masks, glasses, gloves, etc.

















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