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Color Blindness

Charlotte

What is color blindness?


If you have color blindness, it means you see colors differently than most people. Most of the time, color blindness makes it hard to tell the difference between certain colors, particularly reds, and greens.

1. Types of color blindness

-Red-green color blindness


- It is the most common type of color blindness.


- Deuteranomaly is the most common type of red-green color blindness.

These conditions are mediated by the OPN1LW and OPN1MW genes, respectively, both located on the X chromosome.

Since the OPN1LW and OPN1MW genes are on the X chromosome, they are sex-linked, therefore disproportionately affect males and females. Color blindness specifically follows X-linked recessive inheritance because the colorblind ‘affected’ alleles are recessive. Males have only one X chromosome (XY), while females have two (XX). Due to having only one of each gene, if a male’s X chromosome carries the affected allele, he will be colorblind.


On the other hand, females have two alleles of each gene (one on each chromosome), so if only one gene is affected, the dominant normal alleles will “override” the affected recessive allele, resulting in normal color vision for the female. However, if a female has two mutated alleles, she will still be colorblind. This disproportionate prevalence of color blindness is why approximately 8% of males exhibit colorblindness compared to around 0.5% of females.


In addition, males are more susceptible to being affected due to the fact that they inherit one X chromosome from their mother and one Y chromosome from their father. Therefore, if their mother has colorblindness, their son will also have the disease.

However!


They have some advantages.




People with deuteranomaly have a heightened ability to distinguish shades of khaki, which can be advantageous when searching for predators, food, or objects camouflaged among the foliage. Dichromats, on the other hand, tend to rely on texture and shape cues, allowing them to detect camouflage that is designed to deceive individuals with normal color vision.


Tentative evidence suggests that color-blind individuals may have an advantage in penetrating certain color-based camouflages. These findings could provide an evolutionary explanation for the high prevalence of red–green color blindness.


Furthermore, a study suggests that people with certain types of color blindness can distinguish colors that individuals with normal color vision can not. This ability was utilized during World War II when color-blind observers were employed to identify and penetrate camouflage.

VS

In the presence of chromatic noise, color-blind individuals have a greater ability to perceive a luminous signal, provided that the chromatic noise appears metameric to them. This effect is the basis for the majority of “reverse” pseudo-isochromatic plates that are distinguishable to the color-blind but unreadable to those with normal color vision.

2

Blue-yellow color blindness

(AKA: Tritanopia)


It is a less-common type of color blindness.

VS

3

Complete color blindness

(AKA: monochromacy)


- It is really uncommon


-May also have trouble seeing clearly and you may be more sensitive to light.

VS

Effects caused by color blindness


1. Driving

For individuals with red-green color blindness, the red and green colors of a traffic light may appear in the wrong position or be difficult to distinguish. This can pose challenges in correctly interpreting the signals of a traffic light.


2. Cooking

When individuals are unable to differentiate between colors, it can indeed be challenging to determine the doneness of cooked foods or the ripeness of fruits.


3. Career choices

Certain professions may not be viable options for individuals with color blindness, as they often require the accurate perception and identification of colors. Professions such as graphic design, where color coordination and differentiation are crucial, or piloting an airplane, where color-coded instruments and signals are used.

Living With Color Blindness

1. Memorize the order of colored objects, such as traffic lights.


2. Have someone with a good color vision label and sort your clothing or other items that you want to match.


3. Use a smartphone or tablet app designed for people with poor color vision


The other way of dealing with color blindness ( Color Blindness Glasses )

Eyeglasses with specially tinted lenses can help colorblind individuals. However, it is important to note that color-blind glasses do not cure color blindness or provide 100% normal color vision.


Instead, they enhance and partially correct specific color vision deficiencies experienced by individuals with color blindness.


Basic information about Color Blindness Glasses

Cost: Typically cost $200 to $450 or more

Help: selectively filters light to increase the contrast between the red and green color signals. This adjustment accounts for the overlap and helps alleviate symptoms of red-green color blindness, resulting in a richer and more colorful experience of the world.


HELP EVERYONE WHO WITH COLOUR BLINDNESS

EVERYONE SHOULD BE ABLE TO SEE THE BEAUTIFUL WORLD

References

-https://www.nei.nih.gov/learn-about-eye-health/eye-conditions-and-diseases/colorblindness#:~:text=What%20is%20color%20blindness%3F,and%20contact%20lenses%20can%20help.

-https://www.colourblindawareness.org/colourblindness/types-of-colour-blindness/

-https://midtownvision.com/blog-posts/types-color-blindness

-https://www.colourblindawareness.org/colour-blindness/causes-of-colour-blindness/

-https://image.ca/how-does-color-blindness-affect-a-person/

-https://www.everydayhealth.com/color blindness/guide/treatment/

-https://www.allaboutvision.com/conditions/color-blind-glasses.htm

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