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Cardiovascular (circulatory) system, how would I live without you!


It is a well-known fact that the Cardiovascular (Circulatory) System is essential to the functioning of the human body because it transports nutrients, carbon dioxide, and oxygen. The heart, a network of blood vessels, and the blood it moves comprise the system's main parts.

The primary system can be subdivided into two smaller systems. Blood flow between the heart and lungs is regulated by the pulmonary system. Meanwhile, the systemic system regulates blood flow between the heart and the rest of the body. The two systems work together to circulate the blood in a cycle. The interventricular septum, a substantial layer of tissue, divides the heart into its right and left halves. The deoxygenated blood used by the body is carried to the lung via the right side so it can be oxygenated. Blood from the lungs is taken up by the left side and sent to the remainder of the body.

Perhaps the most crucial part of the cardiovascular system is the heart. The anatomy of the human heart can be complex and difficult to grasp. Therefore, we'll take a broad look at the heart. The heart is roughly the size of a fist, to start. It is located off to the left of the middle of the chest. The superior region is represented by the base of the heart, while the inferior region is represented by the apex of the heart.

At the heart, there are 4 layers of membrane that are used for lubrication and separation.

1. Pericardium – it encircles the whole heart and divides it from the cavity.

2.Epicardium – the outer membrane of the heart wall.

3. Myocardium – the middle layer of the heart wall, made of cardiac muscle.

4.Endocardium – an epithelial membrane lining the chambers of the heart.

The hearts are separated into two chambers. The ventricles are located in the larger lower chamber while the atria are in the smaller upper chamber. The ventricles' walls must pump blood farther and at a higher pressure, hence they are typically thicker than the atrial walls. The blood veins that are connected to the chamber are separated from it by the valves, which keep blood flowing in the right direction.

Atrioventricular (AV) valves are located on the same side of the heart, between each atrium and the ventricle.

Tricuspid valve – hence it is named; the three flap valve is connected on the wall of the right atrium and right ventricle.

Bicuspid (Mitral) valve – the only 2 flap valve in the system, it is located among the left atrium and ventricle.

Semilunar valves are located between major arteries (pulmonary & aorta) and the ventricles they exit through.

Pulmonary semilunar valve – connecting the pulmonary artery that exits out of the right ventricle.

Aortic semilunar valve – connecting the aorta that exits out of the left ventricle.

All the things mentioned above can be included in the blood flow pathway. All of the body's deoxygenated blood is collected by the superior and inferior vena cava and sent to the right atrium, via the tricuspid valve, then into the right ventricle. The blood is subsequently pumped via the pulmonary semilunar valve and into the pulmonary arteries by the right ventricle.

Blood that has been deoxygenated will travel through the arteries to the lungs and return to the left atrium after being oxygenated. The left ventricle received the blood via the bicuspid (mitral) valves. The left ventricle will then pump the oxygenated blood through the aortic semilunar valve and into the aorta, where it will eventually reach the rest of the body.

There is also some more information: the cardiac muscle within the heart itself needs blood in addition to the blood that the heart pumps throughout the body. Therefore, a section of the big artery splits off into coronary arteries when the oxygenated blood passes through the aorta, providing the heart muscles with a sufficient supply of blood.

Furthermore, both atria fill together during the cardiac cycle. Both ventricles are filled simultaneously. When the heart contracts, blood is discharged from both ventricles at the same time.


- A Moore, A A Mangoni, et al. “The Cardiovascular System” National Library of Medicine, 5 Sep. 2003,

- Shumpei Mori, Diane E Spicer, Robert H Anderson. “Revisiting the Anatomy of the Living Heart” National Library of Medicine, 17 Dec. 2015,

- Evan Graham, Olaf Bergmann. “Dating the Heart: Exploring Cardiomyocyte Renewal in Humans” National Library of Medicine, 32 Jan. 2017,

- NHLBI. “How Blood Flows through the Heart” National Blood, Lung, and Blood Institute, 24 Mar. 2022,

- NHS. “Understanding How Your Heart Functions” NHS Inform, 18 Nov. 2022,

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