What is AIDS? In what way did it spread? So what should we do to prevent AIDS?
Hello everyone! The theme of today's popular science article is "AIDS". I believe everyone has heard of this disease, If you are interested, please look down. Today I will introduce AIDS to you and lead you out of the misunderstanding of AIDS.
What is AIDS？
AIDS is a systemic disease caused by the human body infected with human immunodeficiency virus. This disease can attack the immune cells of the human body, making the immune function of the body defective and vulnerable to the invasion of external pathogens. In the late stage of the disease, it will be accompanied by serious infection and malignant tumors, and eventually lead to death. Disease is infectious, usually through sexual transmission, mother to child transmission and blood transmission, so prevention is very important! And for the patients who have suffered from AIDS, they should not abandon themselves. They should actively receive treatment, maintain a good attitude, and not deliberately infect others, which constitutes a crime!
Category of AIDS
Pulmonary AIDS: Pulmonary AIDS is a common type of AIDS. The symptoms of patients are mainly dyspnea and hypoxemia (PaO * - 2 * in blood is lower than the lower limit of normal peers). Chest pain is also common。
Central nervous system type AIDS: mainly includes two types: (1) central nervous system infection; (2) Brain lymphoma.
Due to the different parts of the invasion, the symptoms of patients are also different, including chronic and acute, which have a great impact on the body. The patient may suffer from dizziness and headache, and migraine is easy to occur.
Gastrointestinal AIDS: the symptoms are quite different from the above two, usually manifested as long-term diarrhea and rapid weight loss, and in severe cases, poor absorption and worsening physique. A common factor of intestinal infection is Cryptosporidium parvum (zoonosis with diarrhea as the main clinical manifestation, and there are 20 kinds of Cryptosporidium parvum that have been identified at present),which usually shows chronic and persistent diarrhea, with a large amount of watery stool, which can last for several months. If the patient is not treated in time, the patient may die for a long time.
Patients and asymptomatic HIV carriers;
The virus mainly exists in blood, sperm, uterus and vaginal secretions (saliva, tears and milk also contain a small amount of virus)
2.\Ways of Transmission:
（1）Sexual contact transmission: same-sex, bisexual (referring to both male and female characteristics, which is called bisexual malformation in medicine), sexual disorder(improper sexual relations with other partners)
（2）Transmission by blood transfusion and injection: intravenous drug abuse
（4）Other transmission routes: organ transplantation, artificial insemination, etc
Blood transmission was once the main route of AIDS transmission in some regions of China. With the strict standardized management of blood collection behavior and blood product production in China, and the use of methadone (an opioid receptor agonist, similar to morphine, which can be used to detoxify heroin addiction, called "methadone therapy") maintenance treatment in drug addicts, blood transmission cases have declined significantly.
Prevention of AIDS
1.Popularize and understand AIDS related knowledge
2. Safe sexual behavior, keeping clean, avoiding high-risk, extramarital sexual contact
3. Ensure safe blood use and blood supply, especially avoid sharing syringe needles, intravenous drug use and other dangerous behaviors
4. If a woman infected with HIV is pregnant, she must intervene with her mother and baby as early as possible to avoid infecting the fetus
5. Pay attention to iatrogenic infection and strictly disinfect
Misunderstandings of AIDS infection
1. If the antibody test is negative, there is no problem (it takes about 2 to 12 weeks from infection to HIV antibody can be detected through blood)
2. All kinds of contacts may infect AIDS (hugging, shaking hands, mosquito bites and breathing the same air belong to general contacts, and general daily contact will not infect AIDS)
3. AIDS patients cannot have children (AIDS patients can conceive and give birth to healthy babies under the premise of standard antiviral treatment)