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Biochemical Crisis Paving

Zixuan Huang

This article reports on a train derailment accident in southern Ohio, USA. The trains are loaded with dangerous goods, including vinyl chloride and other chemicals. At least three train cars were reported to have derailed, with ammonia leaking from one of the cars. The accident led to the evacuation of surrounding residents, and the railway station and nearby roads were also closed.

According to the Ohio Fire Department, chemicals on the train were detected to be leaking, and firefighters are conducting emergency response to ensure that the accident will not cause further threats to local residents and the environment. The report pointed out that this is another large-scale train derailment accident in the United States in recent years. At present, the specific cause of the accident is still unclear, but relevant departments have launched an investigation.

After the leak, local residents were evacuated and told to stay indoors, close doors and windows, and not to go out. Roads near where the accident occurred were also closed and the surrounding area cordoned off. Since hydrogen chloride is a toxic and irritating gas, exposure to high concentrations of hydrogen chloride gas will cause irritation and damage to the eyes, skin and respiratory tract of the human body, and may cause symptoms such as headache, nausea, and vomiting. Therefore, local residents need to pay attention to protect their eyes, skin and respiratory tract, and avoid exposure to hydrogen chloride gas.

In addition, hydrogen chloride gas will combine with water vapor in the air to form acid mist, which will cause corrosion and damage to surrounding vegetation, buildings and the environment. Therefore, local residents also need to pay attention to the impact of hydrogen chloride leakage on the surrounding environment, and pay attention to protecting their own environment and health.

The chemical spill involved is a dangerous gas - hydrogen chloride gas. According to the data of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the leakage range of hydrogen chloride gas can reach several kilometers, and the higher the concentration of the leaked gas, the wider the range of influence. In the process of gas diffusion, the gas concentration gradually decreases with the increase of distance. Therefore, the scope of the specific leakage may depend on factors such as the amount of gas leaked, the source of the leak, and the direction of the wind, and needs to be evaluated and judged according to the actual situation. But according to reports, the release of the chemicals involved sparked the spread of toxic gases after the accident, leading to the evacuation of thousands of people. From this information, it can be seen that the scope of the leak should be relatively wide.

Hydrogen chloride (HCl) is a colorless gas formed by the reaction of hydrogen and chlorine. It is a monatomic molecule with a molecular weight of 36.5 g/mol. At room temperature, hydrogen chloride is a strong, pungent-smelling gas.

Its molecular formula is HCl, and its molecular structure contains a hydrogen atom and a chlorine atom. Due to the different electrical properties of hydrogen atoms and chlorine atoms, there are polar bonds in hydrogen chloride molecules, so hydrogen chloride has extremely strong polarity and electrical properties. This makes it highly corrosive and irritating, capable of reacting with polar solvents such as water to form strong acids. It is very soluble in water and reacts with water to form hydrochloric acid.

Hydrogen chloride is uncommon in nature and is usually produced synthetically or through industrial processes. Commonly used production methods in industry include: direct reaction of hydrogen and chlorine, production of hydrogen chloride from sulfate, and production of hydroxide from sodium chloride to obtain hydrogen chloride.

Hydrogen chloride is a very useful but also very dangerous chemical, mainly used as a raw material for other chemicals. For example, it is an important raw material for the manufacture of sodium chloride, aluminum chloride, plastics, and many other important chemicals.

In addition, hydrogen chloride is also used in petroleum, pharmaceutical, metallurgy and other fields. The danger of hydrogen chloride is mainly manifested in its strong irritation and corrosiveness. High concentrations of hydrogen chloride can cause burns and damage to the eyes, skin and respiratory tract. Appropriate protective equipment, such as chemical protective clothing, glasses, etc. must be worn when working with hydrogen chloride. At the same time, corresponding regulations and safety measures must be observed during storage and transportation.

Ingestion of hydrogen chloride can cause serious harm to the human body. It can cause varying degrees of damage to the respiratory system, eyes, skin, digestive system, and central nervous system.

Specifically, hydrogen chloride can irritate and corrode the airways, causing symptoms such as sore throat, coughing, shortness of breath, wheezing, bronchitis, and pneumonia. Contact with eyes can cause burning, pain, and loss of vision, while contact with skin can cause pain, blisters, and burns. At the same time, ingesting hydrogen chloride can also cause pain in the mouth, throat, esophagus, stomach and intestines, as well as symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and stomach bleeding. Exposure to high concentrations of hydrogen chloride may also cause nervous system poisoning, manifested as dizziness, headache, syncope, and coma.

Therefore, effective measures must be taken to avoid exposure to hydrogen chloride. Once exposure or ingestion occurs, emergency treatment and medical treatment should be carried out in time.

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